Scientific Divisions / Laboratory of Heat-Equipment Research and Testing (12)
Laboratory of heat equipment research and testing (12)
Dr. Nerijus Pedišius
Breslaujos 3, LT-44403 Kaunas
Phone +370 (37) 40 18 63
Fax +370 (37) 35 12 71
Accredited and notified activity fields of the laboratory:
Accreditation field for calibration
Accreditation field for inspection
Accreditation field for testing
Main directions and results of scientific research and applied works in 2014
In 2014 the Laboratory performed research works significant for Lithuanian industry, business and science, actively cooperated with customers, taking into account general research and experimental development trends in European countries, developed national liquid and gas flow standards as well as measurement services and further expanded research, created experimental basis for perspective research of various types of biofuel and its practical application.
Scientific research and experimental development
The most important event should be considered the direction of R&D to solve the tasks formulated in new topic of 2013–2015 Research of gas flow mixture and its interaction with structurized surfaces aiming to efficiently and minimally polluting the environment use biofuel in heat equipment:
• to investigate mixture of air, supplied to combustion zones in low capacity thermal equipment with the objective to determine optimum conditions, which would ensure efficient burning of solid fuel, including biofuel, and minimum emissions to the environment;
• to estimate and summarize the composition, calorific value and physical properties of solid biofuel, its mixtures and recovered fuel as well as composition of their combustion products;
• to improve combustibility properties of biofuel and recovered fuel or to retrieve new materials by applying thermal processing technologies;
• to investigate the processes of solid particles and separation of noncombustible components from combustion gas and gas obtained by gasifying biofuel by applying perspective technologies;
• to develop research of flow dynamics in micro-channels;
• to expand the application of the developed equipment and mastered methods designed to investigate permeability of various materials and visualize flow structure in order to deal with scientific and applied tasks in other fields.
This was preconditioned by up-to-date flow structure and transfer processes research equipment, purchased within the framework of Santaka valley program, and new experimental devices constructed. This topic was also developed during research based on the projects and programs, which have begun and were implemented in recent years:
• A project funded by the Research Council of Lithuania Research of local fuel thermal decomposition processes by developing efficient and ecological technologies (BIOKONVERS), implemented during 2012–2014 by three laboratories of the Institute;
• Projects funded by European Social Fund Agency: Development of innovative thermal decomposition technology and its application for utilization of sewage sludge (INODUMTECH), project code VP1-3.1-ŠMM-10-V-02-009; Research of properties of different kind of prepared biofuel, produced from agricultural waste and processed products, and application of this fuel for small and medium capacity heat equipment (AGROBIOATENA), project code No. VP1-3.1-ŠMM-10-V-02-011;
• Long-term programs in 2012–2016: Research of dynamics, heat and mass transfer processes of single phase and two-phase flows, completing three tasks; Research of renewable energy sources’ usage for efficient energy production and environmental impact, completing two tasks;
• Economy development and increase of competitive ability program, which covers annually panned and implemented R&D works in accordance with authorization of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania to maintain a base of four state standards for liquid and gas volume, volume flow rate and velocity units, and to ensure its appropriate operation and accounting of important energy resources and measurement accuracy of related sizes considering the demands of Lithuanian economy, business and science as well as requirements of international exchange.
Figure 1. Directions and fields of the research and applied works of the Laboratory
In this way, the Laboratory performed scientific research and applied works in two directions (Figure 1) – energy and thermal engineering and measurement engineering, in the latter the greatest attention was given to the investigation of dynamics of liquid and gas flows and their measurements.
The most important results while implementing R&D in 2014:
• For performing investigations on low power equipment heated by biofuel, a prototype of device for gasification of biofuel pellets has been developed (Figure 2), the structure of which allows using it for investigation of combustion efficiency of various types of biofuel and tasks aimed at reduction of pollution. A numerical modeling program that combines flow dynamics, energy transfer and chemical reaction equations was developed to calculate dynamic flow and thermal parameters. The initial results revealed that it could be effectively used during investigation, construction and enhancement of equipment, designed for burning biofuel with the lowest emissions to the environment;
Figure 2. Images of experimental biofuel pellet gasification/combustion device (a) and gas and secondary air flow (b)
• The construction of three experimental devices for investigation of flow mixing and expansion, gas permeability through membranes and flow in microchannels (Figure 3) has been completed by application of non-invasive laser anemometers and velocity measurement systems based on visualization of particle movement. The results of the research are confirmed by comparison with theoretical calculation results and existing experimental results of other researchers, and provide ample opportunities to carry out perspective studies of flow in channels and dynamics of flow expansion.
Figure 3. Velocity profiles in rectangular cross-section channel (0.5×0.5 mm2), measured by means of µPIV system
Other most important applied works and services:
• Study on natural gas quality along with its revisions has been performed for designation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in Klaipėda to operate as ordered by SC Klaipėdos Nafta and Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Lithuania; reports with the assessment of meter types have been prepared for gas volume conversion devices FC1 (ELSTER) and Flow-X (SPIRIT IT B.V) and for inclusion of gas chromatographer GC EnCal 3000 into meter register of the Republic of Lithuania; up to 50 primary controls of these devices have been completed after their assembly at distribution stations of Lithuanian gas sector;
• Two new verification methodologies for JSC Sanotech measurement and remote data transmission systems SUPERCOM and IZAR were developed and validated by assessment of their conformity to the type. Following the order of SC Kauno Energija, primary screening of remote data transmission systems in objects of different designation was performed for 125 heat meters;
• Following JSC Litesko order, double-beam non-invasive calibration by ultrasonic flow meter SITRANS FUE1010 (Figure 4) of flow meters, mounted in the main thermal water supply and return pipes of 400 mm diameter, was performed in order to find out the causes of heat supply imbalance.
• Works were accomplished and the Laboratory was accredited, and the Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Lithuania announced conformance of measurement systems for measuring the amount of continuous and dynamic liquids, other than water, with Technical regulation of meters (European Parliament and Council Directive 2004/22/EB) to assess the requirements based on module D. This will significantly speed up the conformity assessments for heat and water meters produced by Lithuanian manufacturers and will reduce their costs;
• Calibration of new Eiffel type air velocity device WK 832040-E, manufactured at WESTENBERG Engineering in Germany, before its operation was performed by Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service under the Ministry of Environment;
• In 2014 the activity of the Laboratory as of an integral part of an open access Centre for Renewable and Alternative Energy expanded towards the tasks associated with scientific and applied research of biofuel exploitation processes. The volume of services provided to customers has significantly expanded.
Figure 4. Junior researcher A. Bončkus performs measurements of Marijampolė heating network in the boiler house in order to determine the reasons of imbalance
Funds allocated for applied research carried out under the projects, applied works and services to customers in 2014 amounted close to 2.0 million LTL.
Activity on the international level:
• Implementing national standard laboratory functions, in 2014 the Laboratory participated in an annual meeting of the international organization EURAMET TK Flows and prepared and submitted information on indicators of functioning of the quality management system EURAMET TK Quality;
• International flow measurement comparisons were performed in gas volume range with the flow rate varying from 20 m3/h to 1000 m3/h under EURAMET Project No. 1296, which was organized by CMI (Czech Republic), and in which national measurement institutes from 12 European countries participated, and air velocity in range from 0.05 m/s to 1 m/s under EURAMET Project No. 1225, which was organized by BEV (Austria), and in which national measurement institutes from 7 European countries participated;
• Contacts have been maintained with the laboratories performing international comparisons; the laboratories of Italian INRIM Institute and Poland Gdańsk University of Technology have been visited; cooperation was carried on during organization of BEV (Austria) initiated EURAMET Project No. P1 312 Development of a guide on air speed calibration of solid anemometers, in which national measurement institutes from 7 European countries will participate.
Publication and acknowledgement of scientific results:
• In 2014 after reorganization of the State Meteorological Service, Lithuanian Energy Institute has acquired the status of a designated institute as a part of decentralized Lithuanian National Institute of Metrology. On December 10, 2014 following the Resolution of Government of the Republic of Lithuania No. 1400, four new options of measurement and calibration of national standards were approved;
• Seminars organized: On January 16, 2014 seminar for the project Bioenergy promotion Perspective of development of biofuel in Lithuanian – benefit and risks, in which a researcher from the Environmental Policy Research Center of the Department of Political and Social Sciences at Berlin Freie University Michael Krug took part; on October 30, 2014 during BUSINESS and SCIENCE FORUM Implementation of innovations and results of scientific research and experimental development – the guarantor of NEP breakthrough, a stand paper was presented on a major range of services to commercial entities carried out in the Laboratory, and a project on calibration device of water flow meters DN100-DN500 was proposed;
Figure 5. Representatives of the Association LITBIOMA in the Laboratory
• Minister of Energy of the Republic of Lithuania J. Neverovičius, representatives of Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and MITA, French Embassy, Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, NATO Energy Security Centre of Excellence, Association LITBIOMA (Figure 5), and the Association Santaka Valley Board paid visit to the Laboratory;
• Defense and preparation of dissertations: on November 7, 2014 Eugenijus Maslauskas successfully defended his doctoral dissertation Investigation of Flow Regime and Physical Properties Influence on Liquid and Gas Mechanical Flow Meters’ Characteristics (Figure 6); A. Tonkonogovas’ dissertation work has been submitted to joint KTU/LEI doctoral committee, and the defense is planned for the early 2015; a new doctoral student M. Praspaliauskas has begun his doctoral studies, and doctorate students M. Valantinavičius and T. Vonžodas continued theirs;
Figure 6. Defense of the dissertation by E. Maslauskas
• Participation in international conferences: 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition in Copenhagen, Denmark; 7th St. Gallen International Energy Forum IEF on November 27–28, 2014 in Switzerland; 22nd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition on June 23–26, 2014 in Hamburg, Germany (Figure 7); WASET International Conference on Fluid Mechanics, on December 22–23, 2014 in London, UK;
• Most important published or submitted for publication works:
Praspaliauskas M., Pedišius N., Gradeckas A. Heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentration in stemwood of energetic trees fertilized with sewage sludge. Submitted to the journal Ecological Engineering;
Praspaliauskas M., Pedišius N. Investigation of characteristics and use possibilities of sewage sludge in Lithuania’s wastewater treatment plants. Submitted to the journal Waste Management;
Figure 7. Doctorate students M. Praspaliauskas and M. Valantinavičius at the conference in Hamburg
Maslauskas E., Pedišius N., Zygmantas G. Investigation of liquid viscosity influence on flow rate measurement by rotary vane meters. Mechanika. ISSN 1392-1207. 2014. Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 158–164;
on January 10, 2014 senior researcher of the Laboratory Dr. Nerijus Pedišius was awarded a Badge of Honor of the Engineering Industries Association of Lithuania
on April 14, 2014 senior researcher, Dr. Habil. Antanas Pedišius was awarded a Badge of Honor of a Lithuanian Energy Specialist by Lithuanian Committee for World Energy Council.