Main research areas of the laboratory:
– development and research of DC plasma sources for wide range of applications;
– research of processes and phenomena taking place in discharge channels, exhaust plasma jets and flows;
– diagnostics of plasma and high-temperature flow and development of diagnostic measures;
– research on interaction of plasma jets and substances in various plasma-technological processes;
– research and implementation of plasma neutralization process of hazardous substances;
– synthesis of catalytic and tribological coatings in plasma ambient and analysis of their properties;
– research of thermal and heterogeneous processes for reacting product flowing around catalytic surface;
– formation and modification of constructional material surfaces in plasma;
– synthesis of micro- and nano- dispersed granules and mineral fiber from hardly meltable materials and analysis of their properties;
– generation of water vapor plasma and its application for fuel conversion and neutralization of hazardous waste.
Researchers of the Laboratory of Plasma Processing have over 50 years of experience working in different fields of development, scientific research and application of atmospheric and reduced pressure plasma and are able to successfully create and realize new plasma technologies, using plasma equipment, designed in the Laboratory. Various composition gas (such as air, argon, nitrogen, hydrogen, acetylene, etc.) and their mixtures are used for plasma jets formation. The Laboratory contains specialized technological equipment, which is used to change and modify mechanical, tribological, chemical and optical properties of layers of different material surfaces. Constant updating of technical base, development and disposal of available analytical equipment enables to perform research of plasma sources, diagnostics of plasma flows and jets, analysis of gas dynamic characteristics and heat-mass transfer.
DEVELOPMENT OF PLASMA SOURCES AND RESEARCH OF PLASMA JETS
Recently, new DC (direct current) plasma generators up to 150 kW of capacity are in development, heat transfer in the reactive arc zone of plasma torch is investigated, voltage-current characteristics of electric arc at laminar and turbulent flows, characteristics of plasma jets, arc radiation at different gas flows are analysed at the Laboratory of Plasma Processing.
RESEARCH OF WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS NEUTRALIZATION PLASMA PROCESS
In recent years the interest has been raised for the application of plasma technologies in waste treatment. As one of the most advanced thermochemical methods, plasma treatment method is characterized by its original advantages - extremely high temperatures generated by DC arc (103 – 104 K), high energy density, high waste destruction efficiency (99.99 %), simple and easy process control, compact equipment and etc. Unique water vapour plasma technology, designed for realization of more advanced waste conversion process, where overheated water vapour is heat carrier, chemical agent and a source of formation for active radicals, atoms and molecules (OH-, H, O, H2, O2). Almost all endothermic reactions can be carried out in water vapour plasma to form coatings, modify material surfaces, gasify solid fuel, the most stable chemical compositions to decompose into atoms and radicals. Thus the most hazardous waste and environmentally harmful materials may be decomposed and neutralized. By regulating the amount of oxygen and/or water vapour flow rate while decomposing organic waste, calorific valuable hydrogen-rich synthetic gas (CO + H2) is produced, which can be used as a fuel to generate power and heat in different purpose equipment. , All these mentioned plasma processes and the impact of the final product are determined by the construction of the device, technical characteristics and plasma flow parameters.
SYNTHESIS OF MICROSTRUCTURAL COATINGS IN PLASMA JET
Plasma spray deposition technology developed at the Laboratory allows the formation of catalytic, anticorrosive, protective and solid ceramic coatings used to improve the operational properties of the surface layers of construction materials in mechanics, chemistry, energy and medicine. They increase resistance to corrosion for 102–103 times, significantly improve resistance to friction and mechanical wearing, and are distinguished for diversity of electric, optical and mechanical properties.
MELTING OF CERAMIC MATERIALS AND SYNTHESIS OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE RESISTANT MINERAL FIBER
Plasma technology is the only alternative way to obtaina high quality high-temperaturefiber. For melting and spraying ceramic materials an experimental plasma device with plasma generator 70-120 kW of capacity has been developed at the Laboratory of Plasma Processing. It enables to form a fibre from dispersed particles using air as plasma forming gas and auxiliary (Ar, N2, propane-butane, H2, etc.) gas mixtures, the formed fiber may be used as an additive for building materials, as high-temperature insulation material or a filter for ultra-fine particles.
A new plasma technology was created to produce fine micro- and nano dispersed powder with high developed and controlled surface shape. The BET surface area of powder can reach up to 200 m2/g (gamma-Al2O3).
RESEARCH ON INTERACTION OF PLASMA JET AND MATERIALS
For the purpose of the production of high-temperature ultrafine fiber, recycling hazardous substances, producing various coatings and synthesizing new materials the interaction of electric arc and plasma jet with amorphous and dispersed particles is analysed. Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the produced materials are identified.
DIAGNOSTICS OF PLASMA AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE JETS
Optical emission spectrometer AOS4 with an internal stabilization tunneable filter is applied at the Laboratory for plasma diagnostics. It enables to investigate gas emission spectra in a wavelength range of 250-800 nm. A high-speed optical camera Phantom Miro M310 with CMOS sensor, 1280×800 pixel matrix, which enables high-speed recording and capturing of moving objects at a very high speed, is used for multiphase plasma flow visualization and determination of some dynamic characteristics. Plasma state and thermal characteristics of plasma particles (electrons, ions and radicals) are determined using electrical probes. The analyser of combustion products MRU SWG 300 was purchased with the objective to analyse the catalytic properties and gaseous products.
A numerical research of heated gas flow in a channel is carried out using ANSYS Fluent software.
PROJECTS IMPLEMENTED IN THE LABORATORY IN 2016
The activity of the Laboratory funded from the state budget “The research on dynamic and thermal characteristics of atmospheric pressure plasma and high-temperature gas flows” was continued in 2016. The objective of the research is to investigate thermal and dynamic parameters of various composition reacting gas plasma jets by experimental and numerical methods determining the influence of various factors on the regularities of their distribution aiming at improving the conditions of plasma technological processes.
Long-term institutional scientific research and experimental (social, cultural) development program, initiated in 2012, was continued in 2016. The title of the work “Experimental and numerical investigations of combustion and plasma processes for enhancement of energy generation technologies and renewable biofuel and for reduction of environ¬ment pollution”.
International activity COST TD1208 Plasma in Liquids was continued. The researchers of the Laboratory implement an individual project in this activity Application of water vapour plasma for liquid waste processing, through implementation of which, a new plasma-chemical reactor was developed for decomposi¬tion of organic materials of various composition and converting them into synthetic gas. Research¬ers from 26 European countries participate in the activity.
International activity COST MP1106 Smart and green interfaces – from single bubbles and drops to industrial, environmental and biomedical applications (SGI) launched in 2012 was continued in 2016. Researchers of the Laboratory implement plasma spraying processes as well as the research of dispersed particles formed in plasma flow. Research¬ers from 33 European countries participate in the activity.