Guiding a Least Cost Grid Integration of RES-Electricity in an extended Europe (GREENNET-EU27)

Project programme
01.01.2005 - 31.12.2006
Project status
Project table
Project website

The project was designed chiefly to develop strategies aimed at integrating energy from renewable sources into European power grids as cheaply as possible. The project’s basic tool, the GreenNet Europe software, was developed further with the incorporation of various parameters, constraints and energy policies. Real costs for grid integration, extension and reinforcement were extrapolated and correlated with usual infrastructure costs and electricity prices. By identifying the barriers to large-scale integration of RES-E and taking into account varying constraints, the project set out to develop best-practice concepts to overcome the barriers identified. The project team had utilities and transmission operators (Energinet, EnBW and Wienstrom) on board, a prerequisite to allow for real market input and for an effective dissemination.

LEI activities in the Project

  • The GreenNet software was further developed, modelling strategies for the integration of renewable electricity as cheaply as possible. The various constraints and energy policies up until 2020 were incorporated in the model and the simulation software is being delivered free of charge on CD-ROM or is available on the website.
  • Comprehensive, empirical data were collected on the cost-resource curves for existing renewable energy generation and additional system operation reinforcement, factoring in extension costs triggered by intermittent integration within the different European systems.
  • Identification of the three major barriers to progress: allocation of grid integration costs; no common best practice in grid access charging; and no incentives for grid operators to connect RES-E generators.
  • Tailor-made, practical guidelines and action plans were published for decision makers and other interested parties, establishing a common understanding on strategies for least-cost integration of renewables across a wider Europe.
  • The website received more than 27 762 visitors.

Total cost: 1 286 068 EUR

Coordinator: Vienna University of Technology (Technische Universitaet Wien), Austria


  • WIENSTROM GmbH, Austria
  • Black Sea Regional Energy Centre, Bulgaria
  • Elkraft System a.m.b.a., Denmark
  • Elsam A/S, Denmark
  • Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark
  • EnBW Energie Baden-Württemberg AG, Germany
  • Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V., Germany
  • University of Stuttgart, Germany
  • Politecnico di Milano – Dipartimento di Energetica, Italy
  • Lithuanian Energy Institute, Lithuania
  • Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Netherlands
  • SINTEF Energiforskning AS, Norway
  • Lund University / Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden
  • IT Power Limited, United Kingdom
  • University of Manchester, United Kingdom
  • Agencija za prestrukturiranje energetike d.o.o., Slovenia

Project Team

Name, surname Office phone. e-mail

LEI Representative
Romualdas Škėma 114-AK +37037401802

Project Team
Vygandas Gaigalis
Kazys Marcinauskas 114/1-AK +37037401852
Stanislovas Vrubliauskas