Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety (17)

Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety

MAIN RESEARCH AREAS OF THE LABORATORY:

Together with domestic and foreign entities, the staff of the Laboratory are involved in the implementation of various projects: state subsidy funded scientific research projects; projects funded by the national research programme Energy for the Future; a long-term institutional research and experimental development program; international projects under the EU 6th, 7th Framework Programmes, Horizon 2020 and other projects; as well as other projects according to the orders of Lithuanian enterprises.
The staff of the Laboratory participates in various events related to nuclear energy, presents papers at major international conferences on safe operation of nuclear power plants and decommissioning issues, safety of fusion facilities and physical phenomena occurring in them. Researchers actively participate in various international and Lithuanian training programs, IAEA seminars, committee meetings and coordination meetings, activity of FUSION development committees and other organizations and scientific associations.

Subdivisions

R&D classification

R&D services

Membership

Branduolinės inžinerijos problemų laboratorija (14)

Branduolinės inžinerijos problemų laboratorija

PAGRINDINĖS LABORATORIJOS MOKSLINĖS VEIKLOS KRYPTYS:


Verslui siūlomos paslaugos:


Plačiau apie vykdomą veiklą

Panaudoto branduolinio kuro tvarkymas

Panaudotas branduolinis kuras (PBK) – branduoliniame reaktoriuje susidaranti radioaktyvioji atlieka, kurios tvarkymo ir saugojimo klausimai sprendžiami pasauliniu mastu. Uždarius Ignalinos atominę elektrinę reikia pasirūpinti, kad jos reaktoriuose susidaręs PBK būtų sutvarkytas pagal visus saugos ir teisinius reikalavimus ir nekeltų pavojaus nei žmonių sveikatai, nei aplinkai. Laboratorijoje atliekamas kuro charakteristikų modeliavimas, dujų bei radionuklidų sklaidos, vertinant termo-hidro-mechaninius-cheminius procesus, modeliavimas geologinėse struktūrose, saugojimo ir šalinimo įrenginių saugos bei poveikio aplinkai tyrimai pagal naujausius norminės ir įstatyminės bazės reikalavimus. PBK tvarkymo ir saugojimo klausimai sprendžiami tarptautiniu mastu dalyvaujant IAEA iniciatyvose, taip pat semiantis gerosios patirties iš užsienio partnerių. Darbui naudojamos SCALE, MCNPX, MicroSkyshine, MicroShield, Visiplan, GOLDSIM, PETRASIM, AMBER, COMSOL kompiuterinės programos.

Modeliavimas Scale programa
Modeliavimas „Scale“ programa

Radioaktyviųjų atliekų tvarkymas

Ne mažesnis dėmesys skiriamas ir kitoms radioaktyviosioms atliekoms (RA), kurių didžioji dalis Lietuvoje susidarė taip pat Ignalinos atominėje elektrinėje, o nedidelis procentas susidaro ir mokslo, sveikatos priežiūros įstaigose ir pramonės įmonėse. RA gamintojas turi tvarkyti jas pagal LR Vyriausybės patvirtintus nutarimus ir taip, kad būtų užtikrinta darbuotojų, gyventojų ir aplinkos sauga. Laboratorijoje tam atliekami atliekų radionuklidų sklidimo iš atliekynų vertinimai, atliekų apdorojimo technologinės įrangos bei saugojimo ir šalinimo įrenginių saugos vertinimai, poveikio aplinkai tyrimai. Radionuklidų sklaida iš atliekynų ir kitos charakteristikos modeliuojamos naudojant GOLDSIM, PETRASIM, AMBER, GARDENIA, Visiplan, MicroSkyshine ir kitas kompiuterines programas.

Neutronų, fotonų ir elektronų (spinduliuotės) pernašos modeliavimas MCNP-MCNPX
Neutronų, fotonų ir elektronų (spinduliuotės) pernašos modeliavimas MCNP-MCNPX

Branduolinių objektų eksploatacijos nutraukimas

Branduolinio objekto eksploatacijos nutraukimas (kai numatytas eksploatavimo laikas eina į pabaigą, dėl saugumo rekomendacijų ir pan.) tai teisinių, organizacinių ir techninių priemonių įgyvendinimo procesas, kurio metu reikalingi atitinkami veiklos leidimai, licencijos, o svarbiausia – užtikrinama sauga. Šioje srityje laboratorijos mokslininkai planuoja atominių elektrinių eksploatacijos nutraukimą, išmontavimą bei išlaidas, taip pat analizuoja ir rengia teritorijos, statinių, sistemų ir įrangos radiologinius apibūdinimus bei atlieka atskirų objektų išmontavimo saugos bei poveikio aplinkai tyrimus. Darbui pasitelkiamos Visiplan, DECRAD, MicroSkyshine, MicroShield kompiuterines programos.

Apšvitos dozės modeliavimas MicroSkySchine ir MicroShield
Apšvitos dozės modeliavimas „MicroSkySchine“ ir „MicroShield“

Šiluminių procesų tyrimai

Šiluminių procesų tyrimai vykdomi įvairiuose branduolinės ir nebranduolinės energetikos įrenginių komponentuose. Laboratorijos mokslininkai vykdo eksperimentinius šilumos ir pernašos procesų tyrimus bei skaitinį modeliavimą su ANCYS CFD, Comsol kompiuterinėmis programomis įvairių tipų ir konstrukcijų kanaluose. Atliekant tokius tyrimus galima įvertinti įvairių energetinių sistemų ar šilumokaičių patikimumą. Tiriama priverstinė ir mišri konvekcija, turbulentinis ir pereinamasis tekėjimo režimai, vienfazis ir dvifazis srautai, kanalo geometrijos, kintamų fizikinių savybių, šiurkštumo, išcentrinių jėgų ir kt. faktorių įtaka.

Modeliavimas Ansys Fluent ir Ansys CFD programomis
Modeliavimas „Ansys Fluent“ ir „Ansys CFD“ programomis

Biokuro deginimas

Deginant biokurą, į aplinką pašalinama daug nepanaudotos šilumos bei su dūmais išnešama nemažai teršalų dėl techniškai pasenusios ar neefektyvios įrangos. Laboratorijoje atliekami moksliniai tyrimai, kuriais siekiama efektyvinti energijos generavimą biokuro katilinėse, optimizuojant dūmų išvalymo (naudojant elektrostatinius filtrus) ir šilumos iš jų atgavimo technologijas. Bendradarbiaujant su KTU ir tarptautiniais partneriais, vykdomi šilumos ir masės pernašos procesų tyrimai biokuru kūrenamų objektų įrenginiuose.

Eksperimentinis ruožas
Eksperimentinis ruožas

Gaisro saugos atominėse elektrinėse ir kituose svarbiuose objektuose įvertinimas

Gaisro analizė yra svarbi atliekant visos atominės elektrinės ar jos atskirų sistemų saugos vertinimą tiek eksploatavimo metu, tiek ir nutraukiant eksploataciją. Vertinamas patalpų, kuriose yra degių medžiagų, gaisro pavojus ir konstrukcijų atsparumas gaisrui. Taip pat gali būti atliekamas gaisro židinyje esančio/galinčio patekti sudėtingos konstrukcijos įrenginio detalus terminės būklės vertinimas gaisro metu ir jam pasibaigus.

Gaisro modeliavimas „PyroSim“ programa
Gaisro modeliavimas „PyroSim“ programa

Kas dirba mūsų laboratorijoje?

Laboratorijoje dirba KTU, VDU, VU, VGTU absolventai, studijavę įvairias specialybes: termoinžineriją, fiziką, taikomąją fiziką, pramonės šiluminę energetiką, biofiziką, informatiką, chemiją, matematiką, anglų kalbą ir technikos kalbos vertimą.

Visada ieškome gabių ir mokslą mylinčių naujų absolventų.


Užsakovai ir partneriai

Pagrindinis ir didžiausias Branduolinės inžinerijos problemų laboratorijos užsakovas – VĮ Ignalinos atominė elektrinė, taip pat sėkmingai teikiame paslaugas ir užsienio užsakovams, dirbame su užsienio šalių ir Lietuvos partneriais. Taip pat vykdome Lietuvos mokslo tarybos bei kitus konkursinius projektus.

logos of the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory partners

Branduolinių įrenginių saugos laboratorija (17)

Branduolinių įrenginių saugos laboratorija

PAGRINDINĖS LABORATORIJOS TYRIMŲ KRYPTYS:

Kartu su šalies ir užsienio subjektais laboratorijos darbuotojai vykdo įvairius darbus: biudžeto subsidijomis finansuotus mokslo tiriamuosius darbus; nacionalinės mokslo programos „Ateities energetika“ projektus; ilgalaikę institucinę mokslinių tyrimų ir eksperimentinės plėtros programą; ES 6-osios, 7-osios BP, ES Horizontas 2020 programos bei kitus tarptautinius projektus; o taip pat kitus projektus pagal Lietuvos ūkio subjektų užsakymus.
Laboratorijos darbuotojai dalyvauja įvairiuose branduolinės tematikos renginiuose, skaito pranešimus pagrindinėse tarptautinėse konferencijose, kuriose nagrinėjama saugi branduolinių jėgainių eksploatacija, eksploatacijos nutraukimo klausimai, termobranduolinės sintezės įrenginių sauga bei juose vykstantys fizikiniai reiškiniai. Mokslininkai aktyviai dalyvauja įvairiose tarptautinėse ir Lietuvoje organizuojamose mokymo programose, TATENA seminaruose, komitetų posėdžiuose ir koordinaciniuose susitikimuose, termobranduolinės sintezės energetikos (FUSION) plėtros komitetų ir kitų organizacijų bei mokslo junginių veikloje.

Padaliniai

Teikiamų MTEP paslaugų grupės pagal klasifikatorių

MTEP paslaugų aprašymas

Narystė organizacijose

Nuclear Engineering Laboratory (14)

Nuclear Engineering Laboratory

MAIN RESEARCH AREAS:


FOR BUSINESSES WE OFFER:


MORE ON OUR ACTIVITIES

Spent nuclear fuel management

Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is a radioactive waste generated in a nuclear reactor, the management and storage of which are addressed on a global scale. After the closure of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, care must be taken to ensure that the SNF generated in its reactors is disposed of in accordance with all safety and legal requirements and does not endanger human health or the environment. The Nuclear Engineering Laboratory performs modelling of fuel characteristics, of gas and radionuclide migration in geological structures taking into account thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes. Also safety and environmental impact assessments for storage and disposal facilities in accordance with the latest regulatory and legal requirements. SNF management and storage issues are addressed at the international level through participation in IAEA initiatives, as well as by drawing on good practices from foreign partners. SCALE, MCNPX, MicroSkyshine, MicroShield, Visiplan, GOLDSIM, PETRASIM, AMBER, COMSOL computer codes are used for modelling of indicated processes.

visual representation of a model using SCALE suite
Modelling using SCALE comprehensive modelling and simulation suite

Radioactive waste management

Most of radioactive waste (RW) in Lithuania was generated at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, and a small percentage is also generated in science, healthcare institutions and industrial enterprises. An RW manufacturer must handle them in line with the requirements of the Regulatory Bodies and in such a way as to ensure the safety of the workers, residents and the environment. For this purpose, the Laboratory performs assessments of the release of radionuclides from waste repositories, safety assessments of waste treatment technological equipment, storage and disposal facilities, and environmental impact studies. Radionuclide migration from repositories and other characteristics are modelled using GOLDSIM, PETRASIM, AMBER, GARDENIA, Visiplan, MicroSkyshine and other pieces of software.

Modelling neutron, photon and electron (radiation) migration with MCNP-MCNPX
Modelling neutron, photon and electron (radiation) migration using MCNP-MCNPX suite

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities

Decommissioning of a nuclear facility (when the design lifetime expires, due to safety recommendations, etc.) is a process of implementing legal, organizational and technical measures that requires appropriate operating permits, licenses and, most importantly, safety assurance. In this area, the Laboratory researchers are experts in decommissioning and dismantling planning, costs and doses assessment for nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, as well as analyze and prepare radiological descriptions of sites, structures, systems and equipment, and carry out safety and environmental impact assessments of individual facilities. The work is performed using Visiplan, DECRAD, MicroSkyshine, MicroShield software.

Modelling radiation dose with MicroSkySchine and MicroShield
Modelling radiation dose with MicroSkySchine and MicroShield suites

Investigation of thermal processes

Investigation of thermal processes is carried out in various components of nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. Researchers of the Laboratory perform experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer processes and numerical modelling with ANCYS CFD, Comsol codes in channels of various types and designs. These investigations can be used to assess the reliability of different energy systems or heat exchangers. The researchers carry out investigations on forced and mixed convection, in turbulent and transient flow modes for single- and two-phase flows under the influence of variable physical properties, surface roughness, centrifugal forces, and other factors.

Modelling using 'Ansys Fluent' and 'Ansys CFD' software suite
Modelling using ‘Ansys Fluent’ and ‘Ansys CFD’ software suite

Biofuel combustion

Combustion of biofuels dissipates a lot of unused heat into the environment and emits pollutants due to technically outdated or inefficient equipment. The Laboratory performs scientific investigation aimed at improving the efficiency of energy generation in biofuel boiler houses by optimizing the technologies of flue gas purification (using electrostatic precipitators) and heat recovery from them. Research on heat and mass transfer processes in biofuel-fired facilities is being carried out in cooperation with Kaunas University of Technology and international partners.

Experimental stand
Experimental stand

Fire safety assessment in nuclear power plants and other significant facilities

Fire safety analysis is an important part of the safety assessment performed for a nuclear power plant as a whole or for its separate structures during operation or decommissioning. The assessment includes fire safety analysis for premises that accommodate combustible materials and construction fire resistance. A detailed assessment of the thermal condition of a complex structures located in a fire may be carried out for the fire and post-fire conditions.

Fire  modelling with PyroSim
Fire modelling using PyroSim suite

WHO ARE OUR EMPLOYEES?

Our employees are graduates from Kaunas University of Technology, Vytautas Magnus University, Vilnius University, and Vilnius Gediminas Technical University who studied thermal engineering, physics, applied physics, industrial thermal energy, biophysics, computer science, chemistry, mathematics, the English language and technical translation.

We are always looking for bright and curious graduates to join our team.


CLIENTS AND PARTNERS

Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant is the main and the largest customer of Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. We also successfully provide services to foreign customers and work with foreign and Lithuanian partners. We also implement competitive projects of the Research Council and other institutions of Lithuania.

logos of the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory partners

Center for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (18)

Vandenilio energetikos technologijų centras

MAIN RESEARCH AREAS OF THE LABORATORY:


Services provided

Analysis

Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies provides comprehensive sample analysis and structural characterisation services.

 
Thin film synthesis

 
Plasma processing


More detailed descrition of applied research

Material synthesis

The researchers of LEI CHET have comprehensive experience in usage of physical technologies (magnetron sputtering, e-beam evaporation, PIII and other plasma based processes) for the synthesis of thin films and modification of surface properties.

During various international and national projects we have synthesised materials for the needs of various energy sectors (in particular hydrogen energy) and other applications. For instance, we have produced functional elements for the gas separation (hydrogen purification) membranes, solid state electrolytes and electrodes for high and medium temperature fuel cells.

Material Synthesis
Material synthesis

Studies of the Mg based thin film hydrides

Investigation of thin films of Mg2NiH4 hydride has showed that the hydride displays different physical and thermo-dynamical properties in comparison to the corresponding powder samples. Many attempts have been undertaken to understand the dominant hydride synthesis mechanism by modifying the surface properties, reducing the particle size, controlling the surface oxidation or using additives. However, in our recent study we were able to experimentally demonstrate that different interface zone between substrate and film has significant effect on both film crystallinity and its reaction with hydrogen.
It was demonstrated that properties of the substrate-film interface zone can be changed either by using different substrate material or by using different substrate pre-treatment (for instance substrate pre-treatment with varying plasma conditions).

Mg-Ni thin films
Mg-Ni thin films

Hydrogen production using direct reaction between activated aluminum and water

Scientists at Lithuanian Energy Institute’s Centre for Hydrogen Energy technologies have developed a method of hydrogen production from water, using reaction between plasma activated Al and Mg metals (or their alloys) and water. The technology is patented WO2013151408. For instance, aluminum powder is activated under the low-temperature plasma treatment and immersed into the water.

Reaction of activated aluminum with water yields about 1200 ml of hydrogen per gram of aluminum powder which can be supplied to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell generating about 1 Wh of electricity. In addition, obtained reaction by-product is suitable for the synthesis of the secondary pure product of gama-Al2O3 which can be used in the production of catalysts.

plasma activated aluminum reaction with water
Plasma activated aluminum reaction with water

Functional coatings for polymers

A technology of oxide based functional thin films deposition on polystyrene grains and expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam sheet surfaces was developed at LEI CHET. Specific coatings can be used as antibacterial or antifungal layers, fire retardants, etc.

Investigation of antifungal properties of coated polystyrene
Investigation of antifungal properties of coated polystyrene

Nanoflake synthesis and testing

Using magnetron sputtering technique a special method of oxide and metal based nanocrystalline particles formation on soluble substrates we developed at CHET. After substrate dissolving and purification steps unique nanoflakes are observed.

SEM analysis of nanoflakes
SEM analysis of nanoflakes

Centre facilities

Synthesis

  • Magnetron sputtering and E-beam physical vapour deposition systems (Kurt.J.Lesker PVD-75)
  • Planetary ball mill (Fritsch Pulverisette 6)

 
Analysis

  • X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (PHI 5000 VersaProbe);
  • Auger Electron Spectrometer (PHI 700Xi);
  • X-ray diffractometer (Bruker D8) with environmental chamber for in-situ heating XRD;
  • Scanning Electron Microscope (Hitachi S-3400N);
  • Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (Bruker Quad 5040);
  • Fully automated Sievert type instrument (Hy-Energy PCTPro-2000);
  • Ionic-electric conductivity (impedance) tester (NorECs Norwegian Electro Ceramics AS Probostat);
  • Glow discharge optical emission spectrometer (SPECTRUMA GDA 750);
  • Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen quantity analyser (HORIBA EMGA-830);
  • Dynamic Ultra-Hardness Tester (Shimadzu DUH-211S);
  • Atomic Force Microscope (Microtestmachines NT-206);
  • Double-beam spectrophotometer (JASCO V-656);
  • Other supplementary equipment.

Pictures of equipment employed  by the LEI Center for Hydrogen Energy Technologies

Laboratory of Hydrology (33)

Laboratory of Hydrology

MAIN RESEARCH AREAS OF THE LABORATORY:


Research objects and tasks

The most significant research objects of the Laboratory are Lithuanian rivers and lakes, the Curonian Lagoon, and the Baltic Sea. The state of these water bodies is determined by extreme natural phenomena, such as storms, floods, and anthropogenic activity (energy production, navigation, and ponds). Therefore, the assessment of the change of state of water bodies is one of the most important research tasks.

Using the information collected in the hydrographic and hydrometeorological database and applying the latest digital modelling methods, the Laboratory solves the following tasks:

Laboratory of Heat-Equipment Research and Testing (12)

Laboratory of Heat-equipment Research and Testing
Scope | R&D Tools | Accredited Services | Certificates | Membership | Partners

Scope of research

Processes and technologies for the efficient use of R.E.S. and reduction of environmental pollution

 
Thermal physics, fluid mechanics and metrology


Tools and capabilities for scientific R&D

Set of modern experimental facilities and measuring instruments for investigation of:

 
CFD aplication for numerical simulation of:

 
Our expertise for implementation of innovative projects and services


Accredited & notified services

Scope as Designated institute (DI) for maintenance of national standards for:[1]:
◦ air (gas) speed;
◦ air (gas) volume and flow rate;
◦ water volume and flow rate;
◦ liquid (other than water) volume and flow rate;
◦ pressure.
 
Accredited against LST EN ISO/IEC 17025 for:[2]:
◦ calibration of measuring instrument for gas and liquid volume and flow rate, pressure, temperature and air humidity;
◦ testing water and heat meters, heating appliances, solid biofuel and recovered fuel.
 
Accredited against EN ISO/IEC 17020 for[3]:
◦ verification of measuring instrument for gas and liquid volume and flow rate, pressure, temperature and air humidity;
◦ conformity assessment of heating appliances and boilers fired by solid and gaseous fuels.
 
Notified (Id. No. 1621) for conformity assessment of:[4]:
◦ water and heat meters (B, F and D modules) and measuring systems of liquids (other than water) (F module) against European Parliament and Council Directive 2014/32/EU;
◦ room heating appliances fired by solid fuel against European Parliament and Council Regulation (EU) No. 305/2011.
 
[1] Note. Measurand range and calibration and measurement capabilities are available on BIPM website: http://www.bipm.org/kcdb
[2], [3] Note. Scope of accreditation is available on Lithuanian National Accreditation Bureau (LA) website: http://www.nab.lrv.lt
[4] Note. Scope of notification is available on NANDO website: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/nando/
 

Certificates

Accreditation and certificates granted to the Laboratory of heat equipment research and testing:

Laboratory of Heat-Equipment Research and Testing complies with the requirements of LST EN ISO/IEC 17025:2018 and is accredited to perform:

  • tests of heating boilers, appliances burning gaseous fuels, solid biofuel, solid recovered fuel, water and thermal energy meters;
  • assessment and verification of performance of space heating appliances burning solid fuel according to requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 305/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council.

Laboratory of Heat-Equipment Research and Testing complies with the requirements of LST EN ISO/IEC 17025:2018 and is accredited to perform the calibration of measuring instruments for liquids and gas flow, thermal energy, pressure, air humidity and temperature, capacity measures as well as water and gas flow standard facilities.


Laboratory of Heat-Equipment Research and Testing complies with the requirements of LST EN ISO/IEC 17020:2012 and is accredited as the A type inspection body to:

  • perform inspection of cooking appliances burning gas, liquids, gas and thermal energy meters, gas volume conversion devices, air velocity, moisture, pressure, temperature measuring instruments;
  • carry out conformity assessment procedures for water, thermal energy meters and measuring systems for liquids other than water, according to Directive 2014/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with amendments made by Commission delegated Directive (EU) 2015/13, which was adopted by the Order of Minister of Economy of the Republic of Lithuania No. 4-699 „On Technical Regulation of Measuring instruments“ of 30/10/2015.

Institution which issued the documents:
Lithuanian National Accreditation Bureau


Membership in international organizations

EURAMET – European Association of National Metrology Institutes
COOMET – Euro-Asian Cooperation of National Metrological Institutions
NoBoMet – European Platform of Notified working in Legal Metrology


Laboratory partners and customers

Customers – all economic and research entities, the activities of which require accredited (or additionally notified) calibration, testing and conformity assessment services defined under legal acts.

Partners – Research institutions:

Lithuanian University of Health Sciences;
Kaunas University of Technology;
Center for Physical Sciences and Technology;
Nicolaus Copernicus University;
University of Luxembourg;
University of Twente;
The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery Polish Academy of Sciences.

Partners – Companies:
partners and clients

Smart Grids and Renewable Energy Laboratory (21)

Smart Grids and Renewable Energy Laboratory

MAIN RESEARCH AREAS OF THE LABORATORY:

– mathematical modelling of power systems and networks, investigation of their control issues;
– modelling and optimisation research of ICT-based control systems of power systems.


Smart Grids and Renewable Energy Laboratory CARRIES OUT RESEARCH AND OFFERS SERVICES IN THE FOLLOWING FIELDS:


Power system (PS) is one of the most complex technical and organizational systems covering generators, power networks and consumers, which operate synchronously, i.e., under the same mode and with the same current frequency in large areas. The operational modes of PS, specified by energy, powers, currents, voltages, phase angles and other parameters, are characterized by continuous change. All the modes should be kept within the pre-determined parameter limits, and this is the major responsibility of the PS operator. Control is a rather complex task even under normal operation; however, systems often get into stressed modes, sometimes emergency and post-emergency modes, the control of which is more complicated. Out-of-control operational modes may lead to loss of stability, voltage collapses, and failures of individual parts or total blackout. System and preventive automatics with protection relays and multiple digital controllers, as well as data communication systems, connecting generators and network substations with dispatch control centers, help the dispatchers to operate the systems and networks and protect them from emergencies.
Operators prepare control measures (equipment switch-over plans, settings of automatics, dispatch control signals) based on modelling, i.e., on calculations. This is an activity requiring a great deal of scientific knowledge and methods: adequate algorithms, assessment methodologies and analysis procedures need to be developed.

Development of modern power systems features significant changes. “Inter-system” electricity trade is expanding both geographically and in scope of various products of the electricity market (active power reserves and other ancillary services, forward financial transactions). Users and small generators are included into electricity trade and supply of ancillary services. Electricity is becoming “greener” due to increase of generation from renewable energy sources and also, if any, due to development of nuclear energy. Resistance of power systems to accidents will increase; reliability of power supply and power quality (more regular form of the voltage sine curve, less voltage flicker, etc.) will improve. Enablers for such changes are mostly the smart technologies, based on information and communication technologies. The result of their implementation is described by new concepts like smart generation, smart grid, smart relay protection, smart metering, and even smart house. The smartness component is achieved by computer logic devices (controllers with microprocessors) and their communication with each other and with the dispatchers of the power grid. Smart technologies help operators to control the power grid in a more efficient and reliable manner in real time, and in some cases even make this work simpler (since smart controllers perform a part of the control and monitoring functions without human intervention). On the other hand, control is becoming more complicated for the operators since many additional algorithms and programmes have to be installed into controllers, which requires integration of their interaction, coordination and reproStructural chart of a mathematical model for calculation of electric power system operating modesgramming of controllers for addressing the detected faults of operation.

Laboratory of Materials Research and Testing (16)

Medžiagų tyrimų ir bandymų laboratorija

MAIN RESEARCH AREAS OF THE LABORATORY:


RELIABILITY OF POWER PLANT FACILITIES

The Laboratory carries out research aimed at the investigation of ageing processes of steel and special alloys that are used as constructional elements for power plants and at studying patterns of aging processes, solving issues concerning control of these processes and service life. Applying mechanical tests, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and elemental composition analysis, as well as optic and scanning electron microscopy, structural and property changes of aged steel and non-ferrous alloys are studied. Experimental and numerical methods are used to predict operational reliability taking into account material ageing processes and other operational factors. The implementation of the work focuses on the investigation of fundamental physical and chemical phenomena affecting structure and properties of metals.

TESTING OF MATERIALS, ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THEIR QUALITATIVE INDICATORS

Researchers of the Laboratory provide accredited Laboratory services, and perform material testing and assessment of their qualitative conformity. In 2015, the Laboratory was reaccredited to comply with the LST EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard. As a result of successful collaboration with economic entities, the Laboratory conducts research and provides consults on the quality issues of product manufacturing.

The Laboratory is accredited to carry out tests on:

Laboratory researchers constantly analyze demands of clients and expand the scope of services provided both in accredited and non – accredited field. They successfully participated in the comparative testing in Germany (Kunststoff-Institut Lüdenscheid and DRRR), a high level of excellence was approved in the field of plastics testing – the certificates were granted.

Accreditation and certificates

Laboratory of Materials Research and Testing accreditation and other certificates

Activity field:
Laboratory of Materials Research and Testing complies with the requirements of LST EN ISO/IEC 17025:2006 and is accredited to carry out test of building mortars, plastics pipes, pre-insulated pipes and refractory products.

Issuing authority:
Lithuanian National Accreditation Bureau


Reliability of power plant facilities: research of metal aging processes and degradation of properties due to the impact of operational factors

The Laboratory carries out research aimed at the investigation of ageing processes of steel and special alloys that are used as constructional elements for power plants and at studying patterns of aging processes, solving issues concerning control of these processes and service life. Applying mechanical tests, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and elemental composition analysis, as well as optic and scanning electron microscopy, structural and property changes of aged steel and non-ferrous alloys are studied. Experimental and numerical methods are used to predict operational reliability taking into account material ageing processes and other operational factors. The implementation of the work focuses on the investigation of fundamental physical and chemical phenomena affecting structure and properties of metals. In this research direction, researchers of the Laboratory participated in long-term institutional scientific research and experimental development programs: “Scientific research of safety important processes taking place in nuclear and thermal nuclear facilities” and “Research of processes of nuclear power plant operation decommissioning, nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel management and radiation impact analysis”. In 2017-2021, the program “Development of future energy technologies, research on their safety and reliability” is being implemented. Further research is in progress on investigating the aging processes of construction materials used in power plant equipment.

In 2016, the project Service life assessment model for new generation steel funded by the Research Council of Lithuania was completed. The objective of the work was to investigate developments of structural changes in steel under high temperature and their influence on the mechanical characteristics and degradation parameters. The structural changes occurring under the influence of temperature were determined investigating phase transformations in steel by assessing the evolution of steel carbides and changes in crystal lattice parameters. Phase changes of steel at 600-700 °C was investigated by means of XRD, scanning electron microscopy and EDX methods. Due to chemical elements diffusion during steel ageing evolution of carbides occurs which manifests by changes in size, element composition and crystalline lattice parameters. The analysis M23C6 carbide lattice changes during high temperature aging revealed that these changes are characteristic for estimation the extent of steel degradation, and thus may be recommended instead of other structural investigation methods.

Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetic equation was applied for creating a kinetic model for predicting changes of carbide crystallographic parameters as well as steel mechanical properties taking into account aging temperature and time. It was determined that predicted tensile and creep properties of thermally aged samples correlate well with experimental data. Research results revealed that the developed method rather well defines changes of mechanical properties at thermal ageing and could be relevant in estimating energy facilities ageing-related degradation and could be applied in forecasting their lifetime evaluation.

Fig. 1. Universal dynamic testing machine
Fig. 1. Universal dynamic testing machine

 

IAEA Atom for Peace logo

The Laboratory continued the research initiated by IAEA in 1998 related to degradation impact of hydrogen and hydrides on zirconium alloys. Analysis of Nuclear fuel Cladding Resistance to Hydride Cracking during Long-Term Storage coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was completed in 2016. The objective of this work was to develop experimental procedures in order to assess conditions of hydride cracking in zirconium alloy fuel cladding – threshold stress intensity factor values and temperature limits, under which failure of fuel cladding may occur. By applying controlled hydriding, special construction samples were made of zirconium alloy fuel cladding, in which by changing stress levels, hydride cracking process under given temperatures was studied. The research is important for solving the issues of ensuring safe operation of nuclear power plants and assessing the resistance of fuel cladding to the hydride cracking during long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel.

In 2020, researchers of the Laboratory together with the team of the Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety continued the European Union financed programme Horizon 2020 project INcreasing Safety in NPPs by Covering gaps in Environmental Fatigue Assessment, INCEFA-PLUS. The objective of the project INCEFA-PLUS is to obtain new experimental data and submit recommendations by evaluating fatigue induced degradation in the nuclear reactor operating conditions. The impact of strain and stress mode, hold time, and the surface roughness on the fatigue life of austenitic steels will be investigated. Information about the possible fatigue degradation mechanisms will be obtained after conducting the microstructure and a fractographic research of the tested samples using optical and scanning electron microscopy, XRD and EDX analysis. Fatigue resistance tests are performed using a servohydraulic universal dynamic testing machine Instron (Model 8801, 100kN) and Wave Matrix software for creating test programs. The obtained experimental data were standardized and presented in the online fatigue strength database MatDB (JRC, Institute for Energy and Transport). The research will seek to fill in the current gaps in the existing data: create fatigue assessment procedures that would as much as possible comply with the real NPP operational conditions. During the project, a modified environmental fatigue assessment procedures will be created, which will allow a more accurate estimation of the mean strain, hold time and surface roughness influence. This will enable better management of nuclear facility components ensuring a long-term safe operation of the NPP.

Development and research of Multifunctional Materials and Composites

In 2016, a subsidy-funded scientific Research of impact of nano-sized modified admixtures on the structure of composite materials was completed. The work aims at investigating the structure of natural and synthetic layered nano silicates and optimizing the modification methodology; it also seeks to research the impact of modified silicates and complex nano-sized admixtures on the morphology of cement composite materials.
The influence of modification conditions on the structural changes of nano-sized admixtures (natural and synthetic nano-silicates) was identified, i.e. on the distance among tetrahedral layers, and on the nature of modifier and nano-silicates interaction. Modification methodology of nano-silicate as nano-filler for constructional materials was optimized; it can also be applied in implementing other analogous research and continuing activities in the field of new composites development with the assigned tasks.
The structural changes of the cement composition with nano-admixture – organically modified layered nano-silicate – depending on several factors: nano-silicate preparation, its concentration, and concentration of the used organic modifier were estimated. Dependence of morphological properties of cement compositions as well as mechanical and sorption properties from the additionally introduced nano-additive – the concentration of nano-sized silicon oxide particles, was investigated as well. Silicon oxide particles encourage the development of a cement composition with better mechanical properties. Obtained results revealed that complex usage of nano-sized additives – the modified silicate and silicon oxide – in the cement composition enables development a mechanically strong and water-resistant cement matrix, which may be used as a bounder in creating construction materials operated under increased moisture conditions.
Replacing part of the cement with alternative and environmentally friendly materials results in a composite material whose structural properties remain unchanged or even better.

Fig. 2. Structure model of modified layered silicate and SEM photograph
Fig. 2. Structure model of modified layered silicate and SEM photograph

 

In 2020 the researchers of the Laboratory together with participants from other laboratories have started to implement Priority 1 of the European Union Funds Investment Operational Program 2014–2020 “Promotion of Research, Experimental Development and Innovation” 01.2.2-CPVA-K-703 Measures “Centers of Excellence and Innovation and Promotion of Technology Transfer Centers ”project“ Execution of R&D activities of the Center of Excellence by creating and testing an innovative prototype for the production of gaseous biofuels”.
The project will address issues such as CO2 reduction (biomethane gas is used in an environmentally sustainable way), waste recycling and management (technology allows the diversification of the types of raw materials/waste used), efficient energy and fuel production from biomass/waste (three-generation: electricity, heat and valuable by-product is biomethane).
The researchers of the Laboratory will synthesize a new type of catalyst with a high specific surface area porous heterostructure, which will be used for CO2 / CO methanation and will increase the efficiency and economy of the biomethane formation process. The developed catalysts will be characterized by investigation of their surface morphology and structure properties using SEM / EDX, XRD, N2 physical sorption-desorption, thermal analysis, and other methods.

Fig.3. N2 sorption-desorption isotherms and SEM photographs of initial material and synthesized porous heterostructure
Fig.3. N2 sorption-desorption isotherms and SEM photographs of initial material and synthesized porous heterostructure

Identification of Plastics

The European Commission sets a target by the 2025 to reduce pollution related with plastics industry and to increase recycling of plastics waste and secondary usage in EU member states. The problem is relevant in Lithuania as well since there is lack of relevantly recycled waste, whereas producers lack good quality recycled raw material. The quality of plastic waste recycling is directly related with their relevant identification.
In 2016, laboratory researchers applying equipment of integrated science, studies and business centre “Santaka”, improved the methodology for plastics identification, which was used to identify polymer waste. Sorted plastic wastes are used as secondary raw material for many products. This not only protects nature and primary natural resources, but also enables everyone to economize.

Fig. 4. Test for leak tightness of plastic pipes
Fig. 4. Test for leak tightness of plastic pipes

Main applied research

The Laboratory conducts applied research under contracts with companies and organizations:

  • „Kauno arena“ – corrosion failure analysis of galvanized steel hot water supply pipelines and ethylene glycol supply pipelines used in air conditioning system” samples of steel galvanized pipes, used in a hot water plumbing system, were investigated. Analysis of corrosion failures was carried out, identifying main corrosion factors and presenting recommendations.
  • „Energijos skirstymo operatorius” – study of fusion of polyethylene pipe joints used in gas supply system.
  • „Lietuvos energijos gamyba“ – identifying the cause of high voltage power line failure.
  • „ORLEN Lietuva“ – examination of pipeline elements and remaining lifetime assessment.
  • The equipment of LEI National Open Access Scientific Research Centre for Future Energy Technologies was used for the research.

Laboratory of Energy Systems Research (31)

Laboratory of energy systems research

MAIN RESEARCH AREAS OF THE LABORATORY:


The core value provided by the Laboratory of energy system research is solving scientific and practical problems performing modeling and evaluation of development of energy sector, different regulatory regimes, and the environmental impact of development of energy sector and its politics.

For many years, The Laboratory is a forestanding actor in preparation of the Project of National Energy Strategy. Researchers of the Laboratory are preparing development strategies for Lithuanian energy companies as well.

High level qualification of the staff of the Laboratory is highly appreciable and proven in numerous important international and national level projects.

The Laboratory of Energy Systems Research was established in 1948. Almost 70 years of research activity demonstrates ability to provide continuously high quality scientific results. Moreover, many of research results were successfully applied in practice solving important problems on both national and international levels.