Center for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (18)

Laboratory Chief
Darius Milčius

Tel: +370-37-401909
Fax: 8-37-351271

Breslaujos g. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas

Info brochure (English)
Info brochure (Lithuanian)

Vandenilio energetikos technologijų centras


  • research in the field of hydrogen energy technologies
  • synthesis of hydrogen separation membranes and analysis of their properties;
  • hydrogen production using water reactions with metals and nanoparticles of their alloys
  • synthesis of metals and their alloy hydrides designed for hydrogen storage; analysis of their properties;
  • synthesis of hydrogen fuel cell elements (anodes / electrolytes / cathodes) applying physical vapour deposition methods;
  • analysis of NiMH battery electrode material properties.

Services provided


Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies provides comprehensive sample analysis and structural characterisation services.

  • Sample topology (SEM, optical microscopy, AFM and stylus profilometry).
  • Crystal structure analysis at room and elevated temperatures (in-situ XRD in vacuum or selected gas environment with temperatures up to 1500 °C).
  • Elemental and chemical composition analysis starting from the very top surface atomic monolayers (AES, XPS), through micrometre (EDS) and up to millimetre scale (GDS).
  • More specialised characterisation such as ionic-electronic conductivity, gas sorption kinetics and thermodynamics, precise N2, O2 and H2 amount measurements in metals, surface (micro)hardness and others.

Thin film synthesis

  • Films of various metals, semi­conductors, oxides, hydrides and other materials can be made by 3” and 4” magnetrons as well as E-beam evaporation processes in inert and reactive gas atmospheres.
  • RF, DC and pulsed-DC power sources are available.

Plasma processing

  • Low temperature plasma processing of metals, polymers, organic and other substances can be realised in one of the several vacuum chambers.

More detailed descrition of applied research

Material synthesis

The researchers of LEI CHET have comprehensive experience in usage of physical technologies (magnetron sputtering, e-beam evaporation, PIII and other plasma based processes) for the synthesis of thin films and modification of surface properties.

During various international and national projects we have synthesised materials for the needs of various energy sectors (in particular hydrogen energy) and other applications. For instance, we have produced functional elements for the gas separation (hydrogen purification) membranes, solid state electrolytes and electrodes for high and medium temperature fuel cells.

Material Synthesis
Material synthesis

Studies of the Mg based thin film hydrides

Investigation of thin films of Mg2NiH4 hydride has showed that the hydride displays different physical and thermo-dynamical properties in comparison to the corresponding powder samples. Many attempts have been undertaken to understand the dominant hydride synthesis mechanism by modifying the surface properties, reducing the particle size, controlling the surface oxidation or using additives. However, in our recent study we were able to experimentally demonstrate that different interface zone between substrate and film has significant effect on both film crystallinity and its reaction with hydrogen.
It was demonstrated that properties of the substrate-film interface zone can be changed either by using different substrate material or by using different substrate pre-treatment (for instance substrate pre-treatment with varying plasma conditions).

Mg-Ni thin films
Mg-Ni thin films

Hydrogen production using direct reaction between activated aluminum and water

Scientists at Lithuanian Energy Institute’s Centre for Hydrogen Energy technologies have developed a method of hydrogen production from water, using reaction between plasma activated Al and Mg metals (or their alloys) and water. The technology is patented WO2013151408. For instance, aluminum powder is activated under the low-temperature plasma treatment and immersed into the water.

Reaction of activated aluminum with water yields about 1200 ml of hydrogen per gram of aluminum powder which can be supplied to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell generating about 1 Wh of electricity. In addition, obtained reaction by-product is suitable for the synthesis of the secondary pure product of gama-Al2O3 which can be used in the production of catalysts.

plasma activated aluminum reaction with water
Plasma activated aluminum reaction with water

Functional coatings for polymers

A technology of oxide based functional thin films deposition on polystyrene grains and expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam sheet surfaces was developed at LEI CHET. Specific coatings can be used as antibacterial or antifungal layers, fire retardants, etc.

Investigation of antifungal properties of coated polystyrene
Investigation of antifungal properties of coated polystyrene

Nanoflake synthesis and testing

Using magnetron sputtering technique a special method of oxide and metal based nanocrystalline particles formation on soluble substrates we developed at CHET. After substrate dissolving and purification steps unique nanoflakes are observed.

SEM analysis of nanoflakes
SEM analysis of nanoflakes

Centre facilities


  • Magnetron sputtering and E-beam physical vapour deposition systems (Kurt.J.Lesker PVD-75)
  • Planetary ball mill (Fritsch Pulverisette 6)


  • X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (PHI 5000 VersaProbe);
  • Auger Electron Spectrometer (PHI 700Xi);
  • X-ray diffractometer (Bruker D8) with environmental chamber for in-situ heating XRD;
  • Scanning Electron Microscope (Hitachi S-3400N);
  • Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (Bruker Quad 5040);
  • Fully automated Sievert type instrument (Hy-Energy PCTPro-2000);
  • Ionic-electric conductivity (impedance) tester (NorECs Norwegian Electro Ceramics AS Probostat);
  • Glow discharge optical emission spectrometer (SPECTRUMA GDA 750);
  • Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen quantity analyser (HORIBA EMGA-830);
  • Dynamic Ultra-Hardness Tester (Shimadzu DUH-211S);
  • Atomic Force Microscope (Microtestmachines NT-206);
  • Double-beam spectrophotometer (JASCO V-656);
  • Other supplementary equipment.

Pictures of equipment employed  by the LEI Center for Hydrogen Energy Technologies



Mohamed A., Yousef S., Ali S., Sriubas M., Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI], Abdelnaby M. A., Kamel B. M.. Highly Efficient Visible Light Photodegradation of Cr(VI) Using Electrospun MWCNTs-Fe3O4@PES Nanofibers In: Catalysts. Basel: MDPI, 2021, Vol. 11, 868, p. 1-10. ISSN 2073-4344.
Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Sakalauskaitė S., Demikytė E., Tučkutė S. [LEI], Lelis M. [LEI]. Application of Floating TiO2 Photocatalyst for Methylene Blue Decomposition and Salmonella Typhimurium Inactivation In: Catalysts. Basel: MDPI, 2021, Vol. 11, Iss. 7, 794, p. 1-13. ISSN 2073-4344.
Krylova V., Dukštienė N., Lelis M. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI]. PES/PVC textile surface modification by thermo-chemical treatment for improving its hydrophilicity In: Surfaces and interfaces. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2021, Vol. 25, 101184, p. 1-15. ISSN 2468-0230.
Striūgas N. [LEI], Zakarauskas K. [LEI], Lelis M. [LEI]. Process Performance Comparison of CO2 and Syngas Conversion to Biomethane over a Metal Hydride Catalyst In: Book of Abstracts ( Summaries. EUBCE 29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition. European Commission DG RTD (This information event Workshop is organised by the Clean Energy Transition Unit of the European Commission’s General Directorate of Research and Innovation/Clean Planet Directorate), 2021, Improving Efficiencies of Power and Methane Processes, 5CO.10, p. 387..
Vaičiukynienė D., Kantautas A., Tučkutė S. [LEI], Manhanga F., Janavičius A., Ivanauskas E., Rudžionis Ž., Gaudutis A.. The using of concrete wash water from ready mixed concrete plants in cement systems In: Materials. Basel: MDPI, 2021, Vol. 14, Iss. 10, 2483, p. 1-13. ISSN 1996-1944.
Ščajev P., Soriūtė V., Kreiza G., Nargelas S., Dobrovolskas D., Malinauskas T., Subačius L., Onufrijevs P., Varnagiris Š. [LEI], CHeng H. H.. Temperature and spatial dependence of carrier lifetime and luminescence intensity in Ge0.95Sn0.05 layer In: Materials science and engineering B. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2021, Vol. 270, 115204, p. 1-12. ISSN 0921-5107, eISSN 1873-4944.
Ščajev P., Onufrijevs P., Mekys A., Malinauskas T., Augulis D., Subačius L., Lee K.-Ch., Kaupužs J., Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Medvids A., CHeng H. H.. Extension of spectral sensitivity of GeSn IR photodiode after laser annealing In: Applied surface science. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2021, Vol. 555, 149711, p. 1-8. ISSN 0169-4332 , eISSN 1873-5584.
Barčiauskaitė K., Drapanauskaitė D., Silva M., Murzin V., Doyeni M., Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Williams C. F., Supronienė S., Baltrusaitis J.. Low concentrations of Cu2+ in synthetic nutrient containing wastewater inhibit MgCO3-to-struvite transformation In: Environmental Science Water Research & Technology. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021, Vol. 7, p. 521-534. ISSN 2053-1400, eISSN 2053-1419.
Adhikary S. K., Rudžionis Ž., Tučkutė S. [LEI], Aschish D. K.. Effects of carbon nanotubes on expanded glass and silica aerogel based lightweight concrete In: Scientific reports. London: Nature research, 2021, Vol. 11, 2104, p. 1-11. ISSN 2045-2322.
Medvids A., Onufrijevs P., Kaupužs J., Eglitis R., Padgurskas J., Žunda A., Mimura H., Skadins I., Varnagiris Š. [LEI]. Anatase or rutile TiO2 nanolayer formation on Ti substrates by laser radiation: Mechanical, photocatalytic and antibacterial properties In: Optics & Laser Technology. Oxford: Elsevier, 2021, Vol. 138, 106898, p. 1-8. ISSN 0030-3992.


Kuliešienė N., Sakalauskaitė S., Tučkutė S. [LEI], Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Daugėlavičius R., Lelis M. [LEI]. TiO2 Application for the Photocatalytical Inactivation of S. enterica, E. coli and M. luteus Bacteria Mixtures In: Environmental and Climate Technologies . Warsaw: Sciendo, 2020, Vol. 24, No. 3, p. 418-429. Scopus . ISSN 1691-5208.
Sakalauskaitė S., Kuliešienė N., Galalytė D., Tučkutė S. [LEI], Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Daugėlavičius R., Lelis M. [LEI]. Potential and Risk of the Visible Light Assisted Photocatalytical Treatment of PRD1 and T4 Bacteriophage Mixtures In: Environmental and Climate Technologies. Warsaw: Sciendo, 2020, Vol. 24, No. 3, p. 215-224. Scopus . ISSN 1691-5208.
Lelis M. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Bočkutė K., Laukaitis G.. Synthesis and analysis of metallic Zn phase rich ZnO oxide films for the photocatalytic water treatment technologies In: Materials Today: Proceedings 33 Metal oxide- and oxyhydride-based nanomaterials for energy and environment-related applications / edited by S. Karazhanov, C. Ton-That, A. Cremades. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020, Vol. 33, pt. 6, p. 2484-2489. ISSN 2214-7853.
Bastakys L., Mathew J.S., Marcinauskas L. [LEI], Aikas M. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI]. Structural and Tribological Properties of Ceramic Coatings Deposited by Plasma Spraying In: NBCM 2020: international conference on nanostructured bioceramic materials, 1-3 December 2020, Vilnius, Vilnius University: conference book. Vilnius: Vilniaus universitetas, 2020, 20, p. 1-1. ISBN 978-609-07-0557-5.
Lelis M. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Zakarauskas K. [LEI]. Investigation of Catalyst Development from Mg2NiH4 Hydride and Its Application for the CO2 Methanation Reaction In: Coatings. Basel: MDPI, 2020, vol. 10 (12), 1178, p. 1-15. ISSN 2079-6412.
Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Vilimaitė S., Mikelionytė I., Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. The Combination of Simultaneous Plasma Treatment with Mg Nanoparticles Deposition Technique for better Mung Bean Seeds Germination In: Processes. Basel: MDPI, 2020, Vol. 8 (12), 1575, p. 1-5. ISSN 2227-9717.
Marcinauskas L., Milieška M. [LEI], Mathew J.S., Dovydaitis V., Kėželis R. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI]. Tribological properties of plasma sprayed alumina, alumina-titania and alumina-zirconia coatings In: Acta physica Polonica A, Special issue of the international conference on research and applications of plasmas (PLASMA-2019), Opole, Poland, July 15–19, 2019. Warszawa: Polish Academy of Sciences, 2020, Vol. 138, No. 4, p. 656-661. ISSN 0587-4246, eISSN 1898-794X.
Vernickaitė E., Lelis M. [LEI], Tsyntsaru N., Pakštas V., Cesiulis H.. XPS studies on the Mo oxide-based coatings electrodeposited from highly saturated acetate bath In: Chemija. Vilnius: Lietuvos mokslų akademija, 2020, Vol. 31, No. 4, p. 203-209. ISSN 0235-7216.
Yousef S., Subadra S. P., Griškevičius P., Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI], Makarevičius V. [LEI]. Superhydrophilic functionalized graphene/fiberglass/epoxy laminates with high mechanical, impact and thermal performance and treated by plasma In: Polymer Testing. Oxford: Elsevier, 2020, Vol. 90, 106701, p. 1-11. ISSN 0142-9418, eISSN 1973-2348.
Medvids A., Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Letko E., Milčius D. [LEI], Grase L., Gaidukovs S., Mychko A., Pludons A., Onufrijevs P., Mimura H.. Phase transformation from rutile to anatase with oxygen ion dose in the TiO2 layer formed on a Ti substrate In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing. Oxford: Elsevier, 2020, Vol. 106, 104776, p. 1-6. ISSN 1369-8001, eISSN 1873-4081.
Kazlauskas V., Jankauskas V., Tučkutė S. [LEI]. Research on Tribological Characteristics of Hard Metal WC-Co Tools with TiAlN and CrN PVD Coatings for Processing Solid Oak Wood In: Coatings. Basel: MDPI, 2020, Vol. 10, 632, p. 1-13. ISSN 2079-6412.
Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Sakalauskaitė S., Daugėlavičius R., Pranevičius L. L. [LEI], Lelis M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Floating TiO2 photocatalyst for efficient inactivation of E. coli and decomposition of methylene blue solution In: Science of the Total Environment. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020, Vol. 720, 137600, p. 1-10. ISSN 0048-9697.
Gimžauskaitė D. [LEI], Tamošiūnas A. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI], Snapkauskienė V. [LEI], Aikas M. [LEI], Uscila R. [LEI]. Treatment of diesel-contaminated soil using thermal water vapor arc plasma In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Heidelberg: Springer, 2020, Vol. 27, p. 43-54. ISSN 0944-1344, eISSN 1614-7499.
Belevskii S. S., Danilchuk V. V., Gotelyak A. V., Lelis M. [LEI], Yushchenko S. P., Dikusar A. I.. Electrodeposition of Fe–W Alloys from Citrate Bath: Impact of Anode Material In: Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry. Moscow: PLEIADES PUBLISHING INC, 2020, Vol. 45, No. 1, p. 1-12. ISSN 1068-3755.
Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Pranevičius L. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Production of Gamma Alumina Using Plasma-Treated Aluminum and Water Reaction Byproducts In: Materials. Basel: MDPI, 2020, vol. 13, Iss. 6, p. Article ID 1300. ISSN 1996-1944.
Simanaitienė A., Barauskienė I., Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Šulčiūtė A.. Mixed zinc–cobalt oxide coatings for photocatalytic applications In: APPLIED PHYSICS A. Heidelberg: Springer Natura, 2020, Vol. 126, 695, p. 1-10. ISSN 0947-8396.
Aleksiejuk-Gawron J., Milčiuvienė S., Kiršienė J., Doheijo E., Garzon D., Urbonas R. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Net-Metering Compared to Battery-Based Electricity Storage in a Single-Case PV Application Study Considering the Lithuanian Context In: Energies. MDPI, 2020, Vol. 13, No. 9, 2286, p. 1-5. ISSN 1996-1073.


Yousef S., Hamdy M., Tatariants M., Tučkutė S. [LEI], El-Abden S. Z., Kliučininkas L., Baltušnikas A. [LEI]. Sustainable industrial technology for recovery of cellulose from banknote production waste and reprocessing into cellulose nanocrystals In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 149, p. 510-520. ISSN 0921-3449, eISSN 1879-0658.
Wan C., Denys R. V., Lelis M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI], Yartys V. A.. Electrochemical studies and phase-structural characterization of a highcapacity La-doped AB2 Laves type alloy and its hydride In: Journal of Power Sources. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 418, p. 193-201. ISSN 0378-7753.
Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Medvids A., Lelis M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI], Antuzevics A.. Black carbon-doped TiO2 films: Synthesis, characterization and photocatalysis In: Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology A: Chemistry. Lausanne: Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 382, 111941, p. 1-9. ISSN 1010-6030.
Tučkutė S. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Lelis M. [LEI], Sakalauskaitė S.. Tailoring of TiO2 film crystal texture for higher photocatalysis efficiency In: Applied Surface Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 489, p. 576-583. ISSN 0169-4332.
Milčiuvienė S., Kiršienė J., Doheijo E., Urbonas R. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. The Role of Renewable Energy Prosumers in Implementing Energy Justice Theory In: Sustainability. Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2019, Vol. 11, 5286, p. 1-16. ISSN 2071-1050.
Lelis M. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Laukaitis G., Bočkutė K.. Tailoring of TiO2 film microstructure by pulsed-DC and RF magnetron co-sputtering In: Surface & Coatings Technology. Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 377, 124906, p. 1-8. ISSN 0257-8972.
Yousef S., Eimontas J., Striūgas N. [LEI], Tatariants M., Abdelnaby M. A., Tučkutė S. [LEI], Kliučininkas L.. A sustainable bioenergy conversion strategy for textile waste with self-catalysts using mini-pyrolysis plant In: Energy Conversion and Management. Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 196, p. 688-704. ISSN 0196-8904.
Gimžauskaitė D. [LEI], Tamošiūnas A. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI], Meilutytė-Lukauskienė D. [LEI], Aikas M. [LEI], Uscila R. [LEI], Samosionokas J.. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides contaminated soil using thermal plasma In: Energetika. Vilnius: Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, 2019, Vol. 65, No. 2-3, p. 122-130. ISSN 0235-7208.


Šatkauskienė I., Wood T., Rutkauskaitė-Sucilienė J., Mildažienė V., Tučkutė S. [LEI]. Freshwater bryozoans of Lithuania (Bryozoa) In: ZooKeys. Sofia, Bulgaria: Pensoft, 2018, Vol. 774, p. 53-75. ISSN 1313-2989.
Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Donelienė J., Tučkutė S. [LEI], Čėsnienė J. [LEI], Lelis M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Expanded polystyrene foam formed from polystyrene beads coated with a nanocrystalline SiO2 film and the analysis of its moisture adsorption and resistance to mechanical stress In: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering . Philadelphia, USA: Taylor&Francis, 2018, Vol. 57, Iss. 13, p. 1296-1302. ISSN 0360-2559, eISSN 1525-6111.
Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI], Lelis M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. SiO2 films as heat resistant layers for protection of expandable polystyrene foam from flame torch–induced heat In: Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials . London, England: Sage, 2018, Vol. 31, Iss. 5, p. 657-667. ISSN 0892-7057 .
Montero J., Martinsen F. A., Lelis M. [LEI], Karazhanov S. Zh., Hauback B. C., Marstein E. S.. Preparation of yttrium hydride-based photochromic films by reactive magnetron sputtering In: Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells . Amsterdamas, Nyderlandai: Elsevier, 2018, Vol. 177, p. 106-109. ISSN 0927-0248.


Girdzevičius D., Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Attempt to regenerate MgO to Mg under hydrogen plasma conditions In: The 14th International Conference of Young Scientists on energy Issues (CYSENI 2017), Kaunas, Lithuania, May 25-26, 2017. Kaunas: Lietuvos energetikos institutas, 2017, p. 192-198. ISSN 1822-7554.
Milčius D. [LEI], Diaz Ordaz J. R.. Ni-NaCl nanopowders production using magnetron sputtering In: The 14th International Conference of Young Scientists on energy Issues (CYSENI 2017), Kaunas, Lithuania, May 25-26, 2017. Kaunas: Lietuvos energetikos institutas, 2017, p. 186-191. ISSN 1822-7554.
Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Girdzevičius D., Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Possible reduction of aluminium hydroxide in hydrogen gas plasma In: The 14th International Conference of Young Scientists on energy Issues (CYSENI 2017), Kaunas, Lithuania, May 25-26, 2017. Kaunas: Lietuvos energetikos institutas, 2017, p. 180-185. ISSN 1822-7554.
Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Girdzevičius D., Milčius D. [LEI], Sakalauskaitė S.. Photocatalytic properties of TiO2 deposited on non-expanded polystyrene beads In: The 14th International Conference of Young Scientists on energy Issues (CYSENI 2017), Kaunas, Lithuania, May 25-26, 2017. Kaunas: Lietuvos energetikos institutas, 2017, p. 324-331. ISSN 1822-7554.
Auškalnis A., Žekonis G., Sūdžiūtė G., Povilaitytė G., Milčius D. [LEI]. Lithium disilicate ceramic roughness evaluation after different finishing methods and comparison before and after surface reduction and intraoral polishing imitation In: European International Journal of Science and Technology . 2017, Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 63-76. ISSN 2304-9693.
Lesnicenoks P., Grinberga L., Jekabsons L., Antuzecičš A., Berzina A., Knite M., Taurins G., Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Kleperis J.. Nanostructured carbon materials for hydrogen energetics In: Advanced Materials Letters. 2017, Vol. 8, No. 4, p. 518-523. ISSN 0976-3961.
Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Girdzevičius D., Milčius D. [LEI]. Hydrogen generation based on aluminum-water reaction for fuel cell applications In: Energy Procedia (International Scientific Conference “Environmental and Climate Technologies”, CONECT 2017, 10-12 May 2017, Riga, Latvia). Didžioji Britanija, Oxfordas: Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 128, p. 114-120. ISSN 1876-6102.
Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Girdzevičius D., Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Incorporation of SiO2 and TiO2 additives into expanded polystyrene foam using physical vapour deposition technique In: Energy Procedia (International Scientific Conference “Environmental and Climate Technologies”, CONECT 2017, 10–12 May 2017, Riga, Latvia ). Didžioji Britanija, Oxfordas: Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 128, p. 525-532. ISSN 1876-6102.
Girdzevičius D., Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Implementation of hydrogen plasma activation of Mg powder in two steps hydrogenation In: Energy Procedia (International Scientific Conference “Environmental and Climate Technologies”, CONECT 2017, 10–12 May 2017, Riga, Latvia ). Didžioji Britanija, Oxfordas: Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 128, p. 108-113. ISSN 1876-6102.
Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Generation of hydrogen by the reaction between plasma modified aluminium and water In: Energy Technology. 2017, Vol. 5, No. 12, p. 2300-2308. ISSN 2194-4288, eISSN 2194-4296.
Venckutė V., Dindune A., Valdniece D., Krumina A., Lelis M. [LEI], Jasulaitienė V., Maneikis A., Daugėla S., Šalkus T., Kežionis A., Orliukas A. F.. Preparation, structure, surface and impedance analysis of Na2 Zn0.5 Mn0.5 P2 O7 ceramics In: Lithuanian Journal of physics. 2017, Vol. 57, No. 3, p. 183-193. ISSN 1648-8504.
Tučkutė S. [LEI], Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Lelis M. [LEI], Maiorov M., Diaz Ordaz J. R., Milčius D. [LEI]. A new method of nanocrystalline nickel powder formation by magnetron sputtering In: Materials Research Express. 2017, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 1-9. ISSN 2053-1591.
Raškovič-Lovre Ž., Mongstad T. T., Karazhanov S., You C. C., Lindberg S., Lelis M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI], Deledda S.. Annealing-induced structural rearrangement and optical band gap change in Mg–Ni–H thin films In: Materials Research Express. 2017, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 1-7. ISSN 2053-1591.
Lesnicenoks P., Zemitis J., Grinberga L., Chikvaidze G., Kleperis J., Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Modified Graphene Sheet Stacks for Hydrogen Binding In: MATERIALS SCIENCE (MEDŽIAGOTYRA. 2017, Vol. 23, No. 1, p. 3-5. ISSN 1392-1320.
Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Sakalauskaitė S., Tučkutė S. [LEI], Lelis M. [LEI], Daugėlavičius R., Milčius D. [LEI]. Investigation of E. coli bacteria inactivation by photocatalytic activity of TiO2 coated expanded polystyrene foam In: Materials Research Express. 2017, Vol. 4, No. 3, p. 036409. ISSN 2053-1591.
Orliukas A. F., Venckutė V., Daugėla S., Kežionis A., Dindune A., Valdniece D., Ronis J., Lelis M. [LEI], Mosialek M., Šalkus T.. Synthesis, structure and impedance spectroscopy of NaCsZn0.5Mn0.5P2O7 pyrophosphate ceramics In: Solid State Ionics. 2017, Vol. 302, p. 92-97. ISSN 0167-2738.
Levinas R., Tsyntsaru N., Lelis M. [LEI], Cesiulis H.. Synthesis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study and photoelectrochemical behaviour of as-deposited and annealed WO3 films In: Electrochimica Acta. 2017, Vol. 225, p. 29-38. ISSN 0013-4686.
Chamoun M., Skårman B., Vidarsson H., Smith R. I., Hull S., Lelis M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI], Noréus D.. Stannate increases hydrogen evolution overpotential on rechargeable alkaline iron electrodes In: Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 2017, Vol. 164, Iss. 6, p. A1251-A1257. ISSN 0013-4651.


Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Power generation by proton exchange membrane fuel cell using plasma modified aluminum and water reaction In: 13th Annual international conference of young scientists on energy issues (CYSENI 2016), Kaunas, Lithuania, May 26–27, 2016. Kaunas: LEI, 2016. Kaunas: Lietuvos energetikos institutas, 2016, p. 1-8. ISSN 1822-7554.
Girdzevičius D., Milčius D. [LEI]. Electrical power generation with PEM FC using hydrogen supply through Mg-Ni reaction with water In: Energetika. Vilnius: Lietuvos mokslų akademija, 2016, T. 62, Nr. 1-2, p. 19-27. ISSN 0235-7208.
Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Duonėlienė J., Tučkutė S. [LEI], Vonžodas T. [LEI], Lelis M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Incorporation of particles into the bulk of expanded polystyrene foam using physical vapour deposition technologies In: Energetika. Vilnius: Lietuvos mokslų akademija, 2016, T. 62, Nr. 1-2, p. 28-36. ISSN 0235-7208.
Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI], Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Lelis M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Temperatūros įtaka aliuminio ir vandens reakcijų kinetikai išgaunant vandenilį, skirtą mažos galios prietaisams In: Energetika. Vilnius: Lietuvos mokslų akademija, 2016, T. 62, Nr. 3, p. 145-154. ISSN 0235-7208.
Crivello J. C., Dam B., Denys R. V., Dornheim M., Grant D. M., Huot J., Jensen T. R., de Jongh P., Latroche M., Milanese C., Milčius D. [LEI], Walker G. S., Webb C. J., Zlotea C., Yartys V. A.. Review of magnesium hydride-based materials: development and optimisation In: Applied Physics A . Berlynas: Springer, 2016, Vol. 122, article 97, p. 1-20. ISSN 0947-8396.


Urbonavičius M. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Reaction between plasma activated aluminum powder and water under various conditions In: 12th Annual international conference of young scientists on energy issues (CYSENI 2015), Kaunas, Lithuania, May 27–28, 2015. Kaunas: Lietuvos energetikos institutas, 2015, p. 18-25. ISSN 1822-7554.
Girdzevičius D. [LEI], Tučkutė S. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. In-situ low temperature plasma hydrogenation of pure Mg thin films In: 12th Annual international conference of young scientists on energy issues (CYSENI 2015), Kaunas, Lithuania, May 27–28, 2015. Kaunas: Lietuvos energetikos institutas, 2015, p. 11-16. ISSN 1822-7554.
Gimžauskaitė D. [LEI], Pranevičius L. L. [LEI]. Phase-structural transformations and elemental composition analysis in the TiOx films exposed in water vapour plasma In: 12th Annual international conference of young scientists on energy issues (CYSENI 2015), Kaunas, Lithuania, May 27–28, 2015. Kaunas: Lietuvos energetikos institutas, 2015, p. 1-10. ISSN 1822-7554.
Varnagiris Š. [LEI], Milčius D. [LEI]. Formation of SIO layer on the surface of expanded polystyrene foam In: 12th Annual international conference of young scientists on energy issues (CYSENI 2015), Kaunas, Lithuania, May 27–28, 2015. Kaunas: Lietuvos energetikos institutas, 2015, p. 323-328. ISSN 1822-7554.
Orliukas A. F., Fung K.-Z., Venckutė V., Kazlauskienė V., Miškinis J., Lelis M. [LEI]. Structure, surface and broadband impedance spectroscopy of Li4Ti5O12 based ceramics with Nb and Ta In: Solid State Ionics. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 271, p. 34-41. ISSN 0167-2738.
Milčius D. [LEI], Grbovič-Novakovič J., Žostautienė R., Lelis M. [LEI], Girdzevičius D., Urbonavičius M. [LEI]. Combined XRD and XPS analysis of ex-situ and in-situ plasma hydrogenated magnetron sputtered Mg films In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds. Lausanne, Switzerland: Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 647, p. 790-796. ISSN 0925-8388.
Skrockienė V., Žukienė K., Tučkutė S. [LEI]. Properties of recycled thermoplastic polyurethane filled with plasma treated bentonite In: Plasma processes and polymers. Germany: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, 2015, Vol. 12, Iss. 11, p. 1284-1292. ISSN 1612-8850.


Bočkutė K., Laukaitis G., Milčius D. [LEI]. The properties of nonstoichiometric lanthanum niobium oxide thin films formed using an e-beam deposition technique In: Surface & coatings technology. Lausanne: Elsevier Science, 2013, Vol. 214, No. 1, p. 97-100. ISSN 0257-8972.
Antonov M., Veinthal R., Huttunen-Saarivirta E., Lelis M. [LEI], et al. Effect of oxidation on erosive wear behaviour of boiler steels In: Tribology international. 2013, Vol. 68, p. 35-44. ISSN 0301-679X.


Burinskas S., Adomonis V., Dudonis J., Laukaitis G., Minialga V., Milčius D. [LEI]. Synthesis and characterization of GDC solid electrolytes obtained by solid state sintering of multilayer thin films In: Solid State Ionics. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2011, Vol. 184, No. 1, p. 14-18. ISSN 0167-2738.


International projects

Horizon 2020

iDistributedPV project logo

The aim of the project "Solar PV on the Distribution Grid: Smart Integrated Solutions of Distributed Generation based on Solar PV, Energy Storage Devices and Active Demand Management"More

Sixth Framework Programme (FP6)


NESSHY is the only running FP6 IP dedicated to medium to long term R&D on hydrogen storage in solids. It is widely recognised that H2 storage is one of the major technical barrierMore


Main problem - is to understand physical phenomena of mechanical properties of W and to reduce the impurities in the main chamber: Mechanism of restructuring and surface relocatiMore


The overall objective of the project is to facilitate the participation of the Associated Candidate Countries (ACC) in Priority 6.1 of the 6th Framework Programme and a good start in More


HYTRAIN is a Marie Curie Research Training Network, funded under the EC’s 6th Framework Human Resources and Mobility Programme. The network comprises 18 of the leading European researMore


In this proposal, an outline for NENNET, a high quality research network bundling competences in materials sciences, nano-applications and self formation in Lithuania is given. LithuaMore


COST actions logo

This Action deals with the future of energy storage and aims to set up a competitive and coordinated network capable to define new and unexplored ways for Solid State Hydrogen StorageMore

COST actions logo

Efficient energy storage systems are essential in order to increase energy efficiency, improve economic efficiency and reduce environmental impact of mobile and stationary equipment, More

Projects in Lithuania

Research Council of Lithuania projects

2014-2020 Operational Programme for the European Union Funds Investments in Lithuania logo

Lietuvos energetikos institutas įgyvendina projektą „Regimojoje šviesoje fotokatalitiškai aktyvių TiO2 ir ZnO taikymo biologiškai užteršto vandens dezinfekcijai tyrimas“ Nr. 09.3.3-LMMore

2014-2020 Operational Programme for the European Union Funds Investments in Lithuania logo

Lietuvos energetikos institutas įgyvendina projektą „Inovatyvios biometano gamybos technologijos sukūrimas taikant katalitinės termocheminės konversijos metodą“ Nr. 01.2.2-LMT-K-718-0More


Name, surname Position Office phone. e-mail
Darius Milčius Head (Chief research associate) 304-LK +37037401909
Vygintas Grinis Innovation Specialist 301-LK +37037401824
Jūratė Klimaitienė Engineer 305-LK +37037401905
Martynas Lelis Chief research associate 308-LK +37037401904
Violeta Melinienė Engineer 303-LK +37037401991
Albinas Svirskis Technician 310-LK
Simona Tučkutė Senior Research Associate 306-LK +37037401916
Marius Urbonavičius Senior research associate 301-LK +37037401824
Šarūnas Varnagiris Senior research associate 301-LK +37037401824


Measurement of elemental composition (and partially chemical information) of nano-level sample surfaces and nano-level derivatives
Particularly precise (6 nm spatial resolution, 2-3 atomic monolayers volume (depth) resolution) identification of surface and volumetric (up to 1-2 μm depth) derivatives, determination of elemental composition, obtainment of chemical (bond) information. Problems and limitations can be found when testing dielectric specimens in particular.
Measurement of elemental composition and chemical information of micro-level sample surface and nano-level derivatives
Particularly precise (6 nm spatial resolution, 2-3 atomic monolayers volume (depth) resolution) identification of surface and volumetric (up to 1-2 μm depth) derivatives, determination of elemental composition, obtainment of chemical (bond) information. Problems and limitations can be found when testing dielectric specimens in particular.
Quick, low-localization qualitative / quantitative analysis of elemental composition (including profiling) of solids (metals, their alloys and semiconductors) with a glow discharge optical emission spectrometer
Quick, low-precision (spatial accuracy about 2-4 millimeters, profiling depth precision tens-hundreds nanometers) qualitative and quantitative elemental composition analysis. Ability to perform depth profiling, composition control and comparison between surface and deeper layers.
Precise determination of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen content in various metals, their alloys and other materials by melting in inert gas environment
Using inert gas fusion principle we carry out an accurate analysis of even very small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen in various materials. Measurements require up to 1-2g of the test substance that is melted at high temperature during the analysis and the amount of gas released is measured.
Optical bandwidth analysis of materials using a broad spectrum optical spectrophotometer
Qualitative and quantitative measurements of optical bandwidth in the spectral range of 163-1100 nm.
Sample Analysis by Variable Pressure Scanning Electronic Microscope (Variable Pressure SEM)
Variable pressure scanning electron microscope can be used to analyze both conductive and dielectric samples. It is also possible to analyze biological objects with certain limitations. SEM resolution at 30 kV accelerating voltage is 3 nm, while at 3 kV accelerating voltage, 8-10 nm resolution is achieved. We can create images with both secondary and reflective electron detectors, so there is a possibility to separately highlight the unevenness of sample morphology, elemental composition, and extract detailed pseudo 3D images.
Fast Medium Precision Chemical Composition Study Using EDS Microanalysis System
Quantitative and qualitative determination of the elemental composition of the sample by detecting chemical elements from Boro5 to Americio95 at the selected point (spatial resolution 1-2 μm, depending on the measurement conditions, information is obtained from 0.5-2 μm depth). It is also possible to map the distribution of individual chemical elements in the sample area.
Non-destructive analysis of crystalline structure of all types of materials, powder and thin coating specimens by X-ray diffractometer
All crystalline phases in the sample can be determined by one measurement. There are also extended possibilities for diffraction measurements at the same time controlling the ambient temperature (from liquid nitrogen to 1600 oC) and the surrounding environment (high vacuum can be used or the desired amount of gas (suitable for many gases) up to a maximum pressure of 5 bar).
Sample surface analysis using optical microscope
Ability to perform sample analysis using a high-quality optical microscope with the ability to store images in high-resolution photos. Microscope enhancement is selected between 100, 200, 500 and 1000 times. The photos are made with the NIKON DSF-1Fi digital camera specially designed for optical microscopy with a resolution of 2560 x 1920 pixels.